Assessment of pulling and pushing based on key indicators The overall activity must be broken down into individual activities. Each individual activity involving major physical strain must be assessed seperately. 1. Gender Male Female 2. Distance Determination of time rating points Short distance Pulling and pushing over short distances or frequent stopping (single distance up to 5 metres) Examples: operation of manipulators, setting up machines, distribution of meals in a hospital Number on working day < 10 10 to < 40 40 to < 200 200 to < 500 500 to < 1000 ≥ 1000 Long distance Pulling and pushing over longer distances (single distance more than 5 metres) Examples: garbage collection, furniture transport in buildings on rollers, unloading and transloading of containers Total distance on working day < 300 m 300 m to < 1 km 1 km to < 4 km 4 km to < 8 km 8 km to < 16 km ≥ 16 km 3. Load weight 0 - 50 kg 50 - 100 kg 100 - 200 kg 200 - 300 kg 300 - 400 kg 400 - 600 kg 600 - 1000 kg ≥ 1000 kg 4. Rollers With or without fixed rollers. With fixed rollersRail cars, hand carts, roller tables, carriages Without fixed rollersOnly steerable rollers 5. Accuracy With or without fixed rollers. Positioning accuracy Speed of motion Note: the average walking speed is approx. 1 m/s Slow (< 0.8 m/s) Fast (0.8 - 1.3 m/s) Low - no specification of travelling distance - load can roll to a stop or runs against a stop High - load must be accurately positioned and stopped - traveling distance must be adhered to exactly - frequent changes in direction 6. Posture The typical posture must be used. The greater trunk inclination possible when starting up, braking or shunting can be ignored if it only occurs occasionally. Trunk upright, not twisted Trunk slightly bending forward or slightly twisted (onesided pulling) Body inclined low in direction of motion Squatting, kneeling, bending 7. Working conditions Indicators not mentioned in the table must be added as appropriate. Good > floor or other surfaces level, firm, smooth, dry > no incline > no obstacles in workspace > rollers or wheels run easily, no evident wear in the wheel bearings Restricted > floor soiled, a little uneven, soft > slight incline up to 2 deg. > obstacles in workspace which have to be bypassed > rollers or wheels soiled, no longer run easily, bearings worn Difficult > unpaved or roughly paved roadway, potholes, severe soiling > inclines of 2 to 5 deg. > industrial trucks have to be torn loose when starting up > rollers or wheels soiled, bearings run sluggishly Complicated > steps, stairs > inclines >5 deg. > combinations of indicators from "restricted" to "difficult" Low load situation, physical overload unlikely to appear. Increased load situation, physical overload is possible for less resilient persons*. For that group redesign of workplace is helpful. Highly increased load situation, physical overload also possible for normally resilient persons. Redesign of workplace is recommended. High load situation, physical overload is likely to appear. Workplace redesign is necessary.