Assessment of pulling and pushing based on key indicators

The overall activity must be broken down into individual activities.
Each individual activity involving major physical strain must be assessed seperately.

1. Gender

2. Distance

Determination of time rating points

Pulling and pushing over short distances or frequent stopping (single distance up to 5 metres)

Examples: operation of manipulators, setting up machines, distribution of meals in a hospital

Number on working day

Pulling and pushing over longer distances (single distance more than 5 metres)

Examples: garbage collection, furniture transport in buildings on rollers, unloading and transloading of containers

Total distance on working day

3. Load weight

4. Rollers

With or without fixed rollers.

5. Accuracy

With or without fixed rollers.

Positioning accuracy Speed of motion
Note: the average walking speed is approx. 1 m/s Slow
(< 0.8 m/s)
(0.8 - 1.3 m/s)
- no specification of travelling distance
- load can roll to a stop or runs against a stop
- load must be accurately positioned and stopped
- traveling distance must be adhered to exactly
- frequent changes in direction

6. Posture

The typical posture must be used. The greater trunk inclination possible when starting up, braking or shunting can be ignored if it only occurs occasionally.

7. Working conditions

Indicators not mentioned in the table must be added as appropriate.


  1. Low load situation, physical overload unlikely to appear.
  2. Increased load situation, physical overload is possible for
    less resilient persons*. For that group redesign of workplace
    is helpful.
  3. Highly increased load situation, physical overload also possible
    for normally resilient persons. Redesign of workplace is
  4. High load situation, physical overload is likely to appear.
    Workplace redesign is necessary.

* Less resilient persons in this context are persons older than 40 or younger than 21 years, newcomers in the job or people suffering from illness.

The boundaries between the risk ranges are fluid because of the individual working techniques and performance conditions. The classification may therefore only be regarded as an orientation aid. Basically it must be assumed that as the number of risk scores rises, so the risk of overloading the muscular-skeletal system increases.